Factors for Infection Prevention and Control



In this assignment I will explain what Infection prevention and control is, describe the infection prevention controls in my workplace, describe the correct procedure for hand washing and when I should wash my hands and why, I will also include a hand washing poster in my appendix. I will also include:

      MRSA and Precautions I would take

      What is Norovirus and Precautions I would take

      Chain of Infection and its importance

      Universal Precautions for Infection Control and its importance

      Hand hygiene and PPE

Infection prevention and control is very significant in today’s society, with the latest numbers expressing that exactly 5,500 NHS patients were killed by E.coli infections in 2015. The passing away of the patients could have been prevented with better-quality hygiene, improved patient care and regular hand-washing in hospitals, surgeries and care homes.

Standard Protections are the least infection prevention practices that relate to all patient care, in any setting where health care is carried out.

The Standard Universal Protections will include:

  1. Monitoring and regularly participating in Hand hygiene.
  2. Following Respiratory hygiene / cough etiquette.
  3. Sterilising instruments and devices.
  4. Cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces.
  5. Use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks, eyewear).
  6. Safe injection practices (i.e., aseptic technique for parenteral medications).
  7. Ensuring Sharps Safety (engineering and work practice controls).

Healthcare-associated infections are caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses. These are typically carried safely on a patient’s own skin, such as Staphylococcus aureus, or the intestine, such as E. coli.

Hand washing is the best way to end the spread of many infections. When healthcare workers – keep their hands clean they help prevent the spread of serious infections like MRSA.

  • Wet hands with clean, running water (warm or cold), turn off tap, and put on soap.
  • Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
  • Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds.
  • Rinse your hands well under clean, running water.
  • Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them.

What is MRSA?

MRSA stands for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. It is a type of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus), which has become robust to typical antibiotics. It is often named a ‘superbug’ due to its ability to resist treatment.

Staph aureus is a common and normally harmless bacterium, which up to a third of healthy people carry on skin or in their nose without even thinking about it. Many people carry the resistant form of the bacteria, MRSA, without any effects. It is only when they get inside the body, via a wound or medical incision, that they cause infection.

Preventing MRSA

  • Keep wounds covered.
  • Sanitize linens. If you have a cut or sore, wash towels and bed linens in hot water.
  • Wash your hands.
  • Keep personal items personal. Don’t share items such as towels, sheets, razors.
  • Don’t inject illegal drugs.

What is norovirus?

Norovirus infection can cause the rapid beginning of severe vomiting and diarrhoea, the virus is highly transmittable and ordinarily spread through food or water during preparation or contaminated surfaces. You can also be infected by close contact with an infected person.

Symptoms usually commence 12 to 48 hours after exposure and last one to three days, most persons get well without treatment. Nevertheless, for some — especially infants, older adults and people with underlying disease may require medical attention.

Signs and symptoms of norovirus infection include:

  • Sickness and or Vomiting
  • Stomach pain or cramps
  • Watery or loose diarrhoea
  • Low-grade fever and muscle pain

Treating a Patient with Norovirus or MRSA

• Ask residents with symptoms to stay in their room with the door closed, if safe to do so.

• Discourage occupants with symptoms from using communal spaces.

• Notify occupants and relatives of the circumstances, safety measures, limits and risks.

• Allocate staff to care for either symptomatic or asymptomatic occupants.

• Guarantee non-emergency hospital appointments are reorganised.

• If an occupant needs to be seen by a doctor, please call the receiving hospital.

Hand Hygiene and PPE

• Wash hands with liquid soap and water before and after contact. Alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) may be an ineffective counter to norovirus so not to be used alone.

• Staff should wear single-use, disposable plastic aprons and gloves.

• Consider fluid resistant face masks and eye protection if there’s a risk of splash or spray.

• De-clutter the surroundings and dispose of any uncovered foodstuffs.

• Clean and disinfect all touched surfaces, for example door handles and chairs at least every day.

• Clean and disinfect any body fluid spills (e.g. vomit)

• Provide resident-dedicated care equipment where possible (e.g. commodes, washbowls, lifting equipment).

• Clean and disinfect communal care equipment (e.g. lifting equipment and baths) carefully between residents.


The chain of infection is a way of learning the information needed to prevent an epidemic. Each of the links in the sequence must be contributed to the organism for the infection to continue to spread. Breaking one link in the series can get in the way of the epidemic.

Links in the Chain:

The Organism:

Whether the organism is Bacterial, viral, parasitic, or fungal tells you of the type of disinfectants, antiseptics and antimicrobials to use.

The Reservoir:

Where do you discover the organism between outbreaks? A reservoir can be environmental, in the hospital or the water supply, or a living organism, rodent, bird or snail. Humans are the only reservoir for several human pathogens.

Portal of Exit:

By what means does the organism get out of the reservoir? It leaves in blood or mucus; in contaminated water; or in the blood meal of an insect.


By what method is the organism transferred from one host to the next? Sometimes it needs a living vector like a mosquito or flea. Sometimes it is transmitted by respiratory droplets, blood contact, or semen. Hand-to-mouth is a path for gastrointestinal pathogens.

Portal of Entry:

What method does the organism go into the body? It comes through breathing, a tear in the skin or mucus membrane, an insect bite, contaminated food. The portals of entry are through the nose, skin, or mouth. It tells you the personal protective equipment(PPE)to use.

Vulnerable Populations:

Who is most fragile to this organism? Most Vulnerable people are the young, old, and immune suppressed. Occupational contact could happen. The non-immune is everyone who has not been previously exposed or generated a specific immune response to the pathogen.


I this assignment I explained what Infection prevention and control is, described the infection prevention controls in my workplace, described the correct procedure for hand washing and when I should wash my hands and why, I also included a hand washing poster.

I learned the chain of infection and about MRSA and Norovirus from completing this assignment.



See Hand Washing Poster.